By Charles H. Drummond III
This factor includes a choice of papers awarded on the 72nd convention on Glass difficulties on the Ohio kingdom collage, Columbus, Ohio. issues coated contain glass melting; refractories; strategy regulate; laws safeguard, and emissions; recycling and batch wetting.
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Extra resources for 72nd Conference on Glass Problems. Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 33, Issue 1
And in the case of the super long melter, it can be said that the flames no longer cover even half of the melt surface. These effects produce a lower fining index, and hence is an indicator of lower glass quality. Super Long Model Figure 24 The best way to understand what these differences mean for the glass melting performance is by tracing mass-less particles over the melting process. We follow the temperature and viscosity histories, and they give us the (minimum) residence time, and the melting, mixing, and fining indices.
G. air gases and mainly C0 2 ) by the primary fining process, taking place above the fining onset temperature | 1 | . At this temperature the primary fining process is enhanced by the start of the decomposition of the fining agent. The fining onset temperature needs to be achieved for all glass melt flows in the melting tank to obtain a melt without small seeds. The fining onset temperature is mainly determined by the batch composition and more specific the content of fining agent, type of fining agent, water vapor pressure in the furnace atmosphere and presence of cokes (or other 15 Future Energy-Efficient and Low-Emissions Glass Melting Processes • • • redox-active species) in the batch.
Step e s t m a l e s ~D\ available ava a Die s e q m e m e d melte- 0 lOO^hetectric-rry High melting glasses Very nigh specific pull 5 0 % loss C O ^ Normal a n d hkjh- Very high specific p u ' . emissions melling glasses s m a l c a m p e d syslams Plasma w i r : argon qa?.. high, eledr n1y conaumption, fast — ell ng FDr high v i s c o u s PISS m e l l H i gh Intensity Plasma Metli ng 23 glasses Da(r+* drju'ig iritu VMrti^ijI fly my. s mil Low-oreasure f i n n q i'AEAHl GtaSs 2& P a r l o r secjTHJ-HiJCl hiöltei bySlem eslimales rut avateble available estimates not Very i h n g l a s t mal Mayer Lc increase- heat available eslimates not S p e o a l glasses Spacal glasses Display glasses Future Energy-Efficient and Low-Emissions Glass Melting Processes 18 Table 1 Future Energy-Efficient and Low-Emissions Glass Melting Processes 2.