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By Hans-Christian Schmitz (auth.)

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In the alternative interpretation (18:03), we learn what Benedikt takes to be the time, and on top of that we learn an uninteresting detail about his watch. The information about the state of the watch does not contribute to answering our question. If we interpret Benedikt’s utterance in this alternative manner, we assume that he violates the maxim of quantity or of relation. 5 Merin (1999) forgoes the presupposition that information exchange is cooperative. He describes discourses with the purpose of gaining information as zero sum games.

The assumptions can be distinct, and some discourse participants may be mistaken. When a proposition p belongs to the common ground CG , every member of G knows that p belongs to CG . That is, if any member of G does not know that p belongs to CG , then p does not belong to CG . Nonetheless some of the discourse participants may falsely assume that p is part of CG . They then presuppose more mutual knowledge than is actually available. This can, for example, cause them to express themselves less informatively than would be adequate.

A sentence entails a second sentence exactly then if every information state entails the second sentence after having been updated with the first:14 14 (A) In a valid argument the conclusion is a consequence of the premises. (contd) 46 Accentuation and Interpretation Definition 3-5 (Entailment) Let UTL = TL, Σ, [ ]1M be a classical update system for TL and M. (a) An information state σ ∈ Σ entails a sentence φ of TL (the fact that φ, is a consequence of the facts that are known according to σ) σ |=UTL φ iff σ [φ]1M = σ (b) A sentence φ of TL entails a sentence ψ of TL (the fact that ψ is a consequence of the fact that φ) φ |=UTL ψ iff for all information states σ ∈ Σ: σ [φ]1M = σ[φ]1M [ψ]1M It is now possible to define the two requirements for cooperative information exchange that were stated at the end of the previous subsection: first, Do not assert anything that is already part of the common ground!

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