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By Shimon Ullman

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1978) have shown that the texture gradient is fied, there is no reason to limit theoretical possibilities by assuming that all perception is direct. Psychology has left behind the wreckage of many conceptual systems which attempted to force recalcitrant data into a narrow framework. In \he past decade non-Gibsonian approaches have greatly advanced our understanding of how we perceive a stable environment when we are moving about (for exam­ ple, Wallach, in press). II remains to be seen whether OVP can compete.

The direct approach cannot answer - it Is adequate to understanding radio receivers, which merely "resonate" to information in the electromagnetic array, but not to listeners Who use radios. A radio is a receiver, not a perceiver- it is our cognition Which �t�es meaning to the information the receiver "resonates" to. The pickup of Information Is one thing, Its perception is another. That appears to be the strongest argument against Gibsonian "perception" that does not deny the utility of Gibsonian information pickup.

When we study human arithmetical expertise (acquired after many years of individual learning), most of the mathematical theory of numbers is an irrelevant digression. Instead we have to consider issues of storing many "partial results," indexing them, linking them to methods of recognising situations where they are applicable, associat­ ing them with monitoring processes tor detecting slips and mistakes, and so on (Sloman 1978, ch. 7). Similar issues arise in the study of human expertise in producing end understanding a natural language: instead of a mathematiCally elegant formal grammar, a typical speaker seems to use a huge collection of not completely consistent partial rules and heuristics for deploying them.

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