By G. M. Bennison (auth.)
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Extra info for An Introduction to Geological Structures and Maps
I • ••• '--? WAN T HEAVE Fig. 22 Section through strata displaced by a normal fault (after erosion has produced a near-level ground surface) . Fig. 23 Section through strata displaced by a reversed fault. 27 On some geological maps, such as those produced in Canada and the United States, the direction of dip of fault planes is shown . The angle of dip of the fault plane may be given in the map description. British Geological Survey maps show the direction of the throw of faults by means of a tick on the downthrow side of the fault outcrop (see also Map 13).
Figure 29 is an example of a strike-slip fault. It is, however, also a dip fault. To return to normal dip-slip faults, sequences of outcrops encountered on a traverse may be partly repeated or may be partly suppressed. Where the fault plane is parallel to the strike of the beds we see either repetition of outcrops (Fig. 26a) where the succession of beds at the surface reads A, B, C, A, B, C or the suppression of outcrops (Fig . 26b) where the succession of beds at the surface reads A, B, C, E, F, G.
Strata are displaced by a considerable number of faults and they display many important characters of faulting. Note that faults may die out laterally, examples can be seen at F1 and F2 . Of course, all faults die out eventually, unless cut off by another fault, as at C, though major faults may extend for tens or even hundreds of kilometres. Note also that a fault may curve, for example at G. This is not mere curvature of the outcrop of the fault plane due to the effects of topography on a sloping fault plane (see Map 14).