By Domenico Ribatti
It has been ordinarily permitted that angiogenesis is interested in the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies, like acute and protracted leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms and a number of myeloma. the level of angiogenesis within the bone marrow has been correlated with illness burden, diagnosis and remedy final result. Reciprocal optimistic and unfavorable interactions among tumor cells and bone marrow stromal cells, specifically hematopoietic stem cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts/osteoclasts, endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, T cells, macrophages and mast cells, mediated through an array of cytokines, receptors and adhesion molecules, modulate the angiogenic reaction in hematological tumors. extra lately, it's been emphasised the pro-angiogenic position of the so known as “vascular niche”, indicating a website wealthy in blood vessels the place endothelial cells and mural cells akin to pericytes and tender muscle cells create a microenvironment that is affecting the habit of a number of stem and progenitor cells, in hematological malignancies.
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Additional info for Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenesis in Hematological Malignancies
4). Overall, these data suggest the importance of AQP4 in PCNSL due to its involvement in pathogenesis and resolution of cerebral edema. AQP4 is also involved in migration of tumor cells. It was also documented that tumor microvasculature in PCNSL is extremely heterogeneous, confirming the importance of neoangiogenesis in their pathogenesis (Nico et al. 2012). 40 3 Angiogenesis in Lymphomas Fig. 1 Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) immunocytochemical expression in internal healthy (a) and in control (b) brain tissues and in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) with high (c–g) and low (h–i) Ki-67 index.
2004). The clinical significance of increased MVD is not clear and difficult to establish because most of the studies different treatment describe heterogeneous populations including a wide variety of histologic subtypes of NHL and regimens. Several studies have demonstrated that high levels of VEGF in lymphoma samples correlate with advanced tumor stage and higher risk for relapsed/refractory disease after standard chemotherapy. In NHL high pretreatment levels of serum VEGF was a prognostic factor for survival in multivariate analysis (Salven et al.
2005). In aggressive subtypes of Burkitt’s lymphoma and DLBC, VEGF-A producing CD68+ VEGFR1+ myelo-monocytic cells are closely associated to new-formed blood vessels (Ruan et al. 2006). Genetic depletion of this subpopulation of CD68+ VEGFR1+ myelo-monocytic cells was sufficient to inhibit angiogenesis in various tumor experimental models, including lymphoma (De Palma et al. 2003). 6 The Role of Macrophages and Mast Cells Angiogenesis extent and macrophage density increase simultaneously with pathological progression in B cell NHL, suggesting that an increase number of macrophages may be recruited and activated locally by malignant B cells, and that angiogenesis associated with B cell-NHL may be induced, at least, partly, by angiogenic factors secreted by macrophages (Vacca et al.