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Published via the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic study Series.

The four million to twenty million sq. kilometers of sea ice that surrounds the Antarctic continent represents one of many greatest and so much dynamic ecosystems in the world. This sea ice matrix presents a habitat for a large choice of organisms, a few of which reside their whole lives in the ice whereas others are just occasional viewers. huge grazers, reminiscent of copepods and krill which come to the ocean ice to feed, symbolize vital hyperlinks among sea ice biota and the pelagic atmosphere. regrettably, end result of the inherent hassle of sampling such an atmosphere, many facets of this special habitat are nonetheless poorly understood. the aim of this quantity is to offer new information regarding this environment in order that its position in the Antarctic food-web (and as a sink for carbon dioxide) and its susceptibility to environmental adjustments might be larger understood.

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It is importantthattheamountof submerged ice area, as determinedby the interactionof snowandice thicknessshownin Eq. 1, be estimatedwith reasonable accuracyin the model. Wadhamset al. , 1987]. 3%)dueto thethickerthanaveragesnowcoverof theWeddellSea. 9. 7%. 40 Percent multi-year ice ICE 39 the duration of the simulation. In these simulations, a single parameter was varied by +50% while all otherswere held constant. 1 Spectral photoadaptation parameter. Algal productivityin the model is controlledto a large degree by the value of Ik', which is scaledto simulatephotoacclimationto changesin ambientirradiance(Figure 5C).

Temporal changesin the percentageof sea ice area forcedbelow the freeboardlevel due to snow loadingfor both the Weddell Sea and the entire Antarctic ice pack. , 1987]. Nov 1 Dec 1 Jan 1 Feb 1 Mar 1 Apr 1 May 1 Date Fig. 10. 82 D 120 lOO 80 6O 4O 2O ß 0 Oct1 Nov1 I Dec1 Jan1 Feb1 Marl Apr1 May1 Oct1 Date Nov1 Dec1 Jan1 Feb1 Marl Apr1 May1 Date Fig. 11. ,for silicate,and(d) Q•0. been reasonablywell established[Arrigo and Sullivan, 1994] becausethe model is quite sensitiveto this parameter(Figure 11A).

First, we were Arrigo,K. , andC. W. Sullivan,A highresolutionbio-optical model of microalgalgrowth:Testsusingseaice algal comable to reachapproximateagreementwith previousestimunity time series data, Limnol. , 39, 609-631, matesof the magnitudeof primaryproduction[Legendre 1994. et aL, 1992] in thesesystemsusinga differentapproach, Arrigo, K. , G. L. van Dijken, andJ. C. Comiso,Estimating but with the same assumptionthat near-surfacealgal the Thickness of Sea Ice Snow Cover in the Weddell Sea communities areresponsible for mostof theproductivity.

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