Comparative Politics

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By Michael Gagarin

Gagarin demonstrates persuasively that Antiphon the logographer is similar with the Antiphon who made highbrow contributions on extra summary issues. --Mervin R. Dilts, Professor of Classics, big apple collage Antiphon was once a fifth-century Athenian highbrow (ca. 480-411 BCE) who created the career of speechwriting whereas serving as an influential and hugely sought-out adviser to litigants within the Athenian courts. 3 of his speeches are preserved, including 3 units of Tetralogies (four hypothetical paired speeches), whose authenticity is usually doubted. Fragments additionally continue to exist of highbrow treatises on matters together with justice, legislations, and nature (physis), that are usually attributed to a separate Antiphon the Sophist. have been those Antiphons particularly one and a similar person, endowed with a wide-ranging brain able to take on many of the diversified highbrow pursuits of his day? via an research of most of these writings, this e-book convincingly argues that they have been composed via a unmarried person, Antiphon the Athenian. Michael Gagarin units shut readings of person works inside a much broader dialogue of the fifth-century Athenian highbrow weather and the philosophical ferment referred to as the sophistic stream. this permits him to illustrate the general coherence of Antiphon's pursuits and writings and to teach how he used to be a pivotal determine among the sophists and the Attic orators of the fourth century. moreover, Gagarin's argument permits us to re-evaluate the paintings of the sophists as an entire, in order to now be visible as essentially attracted to trademarks (speech, argument) and as precursors of fourth-century rhetoric, instead of of their traditional function as foils for Plato.

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These and other Antiphons would clearly be excluded by the designation “the Sophist” in a way that the Rhamnusian would not. The lives and writings (if any) of these other Antiphons were quite different from the intellectual activity of the orator-Sophist, and so it is always clear, either from the context or from some additional designation, when a fourth-century source is referring to one of these others. 21 If the reference is to Antiphon’s writings or ideas, there is no designation of a specific Antiphon unless the reference is to the poet, in which case either he is so designated or a specific play is mentioned.

Here, too, the Sophists probably exploited the ambivalence. 44 In defending Helen, he explicitly challenges the traditional view and also provides arguments that seem quite unpersuasive, at least to many; presumably his speech is the weaker logos. 45 Is this a case where Gorgias presents the stronger logos because it is the just case? Or is it the weaker logos because it loses? And 42 In an otherwise good treatment of this fragment, Schiappa (1991: 103 –16) translates it throughout with a second definite article—“make the weaker logos the stronger”— implying a victory.

Plato indicates some of the difficulties that arise from the man-measure saying, but the Sophists did not necessarily follow the direction of the argument he lays out in Theaetetus. It is thus impossible to know in detail what sort of relativism Protagoras and others may have endorsed, but it is clear that the Sophists’ primary concern was with human issues, and they looked to humans for the solutions to their problems. 7. , the director of the National Endowment for the Humanities, Lynne Cheney, interviewed Bernard ing is identical or very nearly so.

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