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By Michael Nosonovsky, Bharat Bhushan (auth.), Professor Bharat Bhushan, Professor Dr. Harald Fuchs (eds.)

The scanning probe microscopy ?eld has been swiftly increasing. it's a hard job to gather a well timed evaluate of this ?eld with an emphasis on technical dev- opments and business purposes. It turned glaring whereas modifying Vols. I–IV that a huge variety of technical and applicational points are current and quickly - veloping around the world. contemplating the good fortune of Vols. I–IV and the truth that extra colleagues from prime laboratories have been able to give a contribution their most recent achie- ments, we made up our minds to extend the sequence with articles touching ?elds now not coated within the past volumes. The reaction and aid of our colleagues have been first-class, making it attainable to edit one other 3 volumes of the sequence. unlike to- cal convention court cases, the utilized scanning probe equipment intend to offer an outline of modern advancements as a compendium for either sensible functions and up to date simple learn effects, and novel technical advancements with admire to instrumentation and probes. the current volumes conceal 3 major parts: novel probes and methods (Vol. V), charactarization (Vol. VI), and biomimetics and commercial purposes (Vol. VII). quantity V contains an outline of probe and sensor applied sciences together with built-in cantilever innovations, electrostatic microscanners, low-noise equipment and superior dynamic strength microscopy suggestions, high-resonance dynamic strength - croscopy and the torsional resonance process, modelling of tip cantilever structures, scanning probe equipment, methods for elasticity and adhesion measurements at the nanometer scale in addition to optical functions of scanning probe ideas in response to near?eld Raman spectroscopy and imaging.

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Gov List of Contributors – Volume VII XXXVII Sascha E. de Robert A. de Ronnie T. jp Bharat Bhushan Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM) W 390 Scott Laboratory, 201 W. edu Daniel Ebeling Center for NanoTechnology (CeNTech), Heisenbergstr. ch Hendrik Hölscher Center for NanoTechnology (CeNTech), Heisenbergstr. edu Tilman E. Schäffer Institute of Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Münster Heisenbergstr. de Udo D. O. edu XLI List of Contributors – Volume VI Asa H.

4), we obtain the so-called Young equation for the contact angle: cos θ0 = γSA − γSL . 5) 6 M. Nosonovsky · B. Bhushan Fig. 2. Droplet of liquid in contact with a solid surface – smooth surface, contact angle θ0 ; rough surface, contact angle θ – and a surface with sharp edges. For a droplet moving from left to right on a sharp edge (shown by an arrow), the contact angle at a sharp edge may be any value between the contact angle with the horizontal plane and with the inclined plane. 5) provides with the value of the static contact angle for given surface tensions.

Fig. 3. 3 Contact Angle Hysteresis There are several reasons which may lead to the contact angle hysteresis. These include surface roughness and heterogeneity. , 8 M. Nosonovsky · B. Bhushan at contact angles different from θ0 [19]. This effect is illustrated in the bottom sketch of Fig. 2, which shows a droplet propagating along a solid surface with grooves. At the edge point, the contact angle is not defined and can have any value between the values corresponding to the contact with the horizontal and inclined surfaces.

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