By John O’Donel Alexander MB, ChB, FRCP (Glasgow) (auth.)
To the entomologist all bugs have six legs; the layman has a tendency to take advantage of the time period "insect" to incorporate the eight-legged spiders and mites. these kind of creatures are thoroughly categorised as arthropods. Many hundreds of thousands of the masses of millions of regarded species of arthropods are present in the human environment-domestic, occupational and rec reational. these species that are obligate parasites of guy, the human scabies mite and the top and physique lice, produce regularly occurring scientific syndromes. they continue to be very important in clinical perform and feature been the topic of loads of fresh learn. this can be starting to throw a lot mild at the immunological mechanisms which mostly make certain the reactions of the host. Dr. Alexander has supplied a close survey of this paintings. The wasps, bees, ants and different Hymenoptera that can sting guy in self-defence could cause painful, even deadly reactions. the hot paintings in this vital topic has additionally been completely reviewed. each dermatologist of expertise will admit that he sees many sufferers in whom he makes a prognosis of "insect bites", if he has the boldness to take action, or of "papular urticaria" or "prurigo" while he lacks such self belief, customarily simply because he's at a loss to understand which arthropod could be implicated. In his survey of the large literature within the entomological, public future health and dermatology journals Dr. Alexander has supplied a useful consultant within which the options to those scientific mysteries should be sought.
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IS. Broken-up fragments of hair lacquer on scalp hairs. These can easily be mistaken for nits by the inexperienced or cursory examiner (see text). Epidemiology There are differences between the epidemiology of head and body lice which make it convenient to discuss them separately. The factors concerned play a considerable part in the persistence and spread of the two conditions so that a clear understanding is valuable in treatment and control. Treating an individual is relatively easy, but eradicating the disorder from a community is much more difficult.
Eggshells which have been present for a very long time may be worn down to only a fragment attached to the hair. Lice may also be seen on the scalp; however, because they are mobile and because the immature forms, which are more active than the adults, greatly outnumber the adults, they may be diffi- 39 cult to see unless specifically sought. First-stage nymphs, which start to feed almost as soon as they are hatched are usually red because of contained blood. They resemble a pinpoint blood crust but they move-hence the name "mechanised dandruff" given to lice by soldiers.
Dispersal to other heads frequently follows copulation, but Maunder indicated that immature lice seldom migrated. Spread of lice is enhanced by conditions of overcrowding, poor housing, poverty, ignorance and lack of Fig. 19. Head lice gripping a scalp hair by specially adapted tarsal claws. Pediculus humanus hygiene facilities-conditions which are most frequent in underdeveloped countries and refugee camps. At the same time it should be emphasised that none of these factors by themselves cause pediculosis.