By Paul O.P. Ts'o (Eds.)
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Extra resources for Basic Principles in Nucleic Acid Chemistry. Volume 1
Such a new steady state would have a decrease in the absolute value of internal entropy due to the increased internal order as represented by the degree of organization at the expense of dissipation of entropy to the environment. " As for the importance of free energy, Eigen remarks, "Where free energy is supplied in excess, the system will utilize any selective advantage regardless of how 'costly' it is. However, if the use of energy becomes a secondary constraint by influencing the selective value, then the system will respond accordingly.
The expression of this gene in low-potassium sheep red cells alters the kinetic properties and probably also reduces the number of K + - N a + pump sites across the membrane. The frequency of the highpotassium gene vs the low-potassium gene varies greatly between breeds of sheep and is subject to natural selection . The frequency of highpotassium genes is high in mountain breeds but low in desert breeds. Shifting of mountain sheep to a drier and hotter climate caused a gradual shift in gene frequency from high-potassium to low-potassium population.
Thus, only the informational molecules pertaining to the genetic apparatus, such as proteins or nucleic acids, should be chosen for consideration of their roles in evolution. The study relating protein structure to biological evolution [128,129] was made possible through the recent data acquired on the primary structure of various proteins from many species as well as the establishment of the univer sality of the genetic code. A typical example is the determination of the amino L In the Beginning 35 acid sequences of cytochrome c from 22 vertebrates, 4 invertebrates, 3 fungi, and one high plant in the past few years.