By Nahikari Irastorza
Are immigrants extra enterprising than natives in Spain? How winning are migrant marketers in comparison to those that begin companies of their kingdom of start? With the expansion of migration world wide, questions akin to those are garnering the eye of economists, policymakers and students. Born marketers? asks how foreignness impacts an immigrant's skill to release and to develop a profitable enterprise. It additionally explores the industrial and social advantages that immigrants may well derive from self-employment and the original elements at play in so-called ethnic and immigrant entrepreneurship.
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Extra resources for Born Entrepreneurs?: Immigrant Self-Employment in Spain
49 per cent). 85 per cent). Graph 12 illustrates the changes in self-employment permits issued to foreigners by the Spanish authorities by region in 1998 and 2005. Most noticeable is the increase in permits in the Madrid region. BORN ENTREPRENEURS? 21 100 Source: Anuario de Estadísticas Laborales y de Asuntos Sociales. 34 BORN ENTREPRENEURS? 21 100 Source: Anuario de Estadísticas Laborales y de Asuntos Sociales. 34 BORN ENTREPRENEURS? 41 100 Source: Anuario de Estadísticas Laborales y de Asuntos Sociales.
Entrepreneurial cognitions are mental processes through which individuals evaluate the decision to start a firm (Mitchell et al. 2002b). Arenius and Minniti (2005) found that decision-making processes of nascent entrepreneurs are based on subjective perceptions rather than on objective expectations of success. Therefore, it is pertinent to include perceptual variables in my conceptual framework. Entrepreneurial cognitions involve the evaluation of self-efficiency, risk perception as well as opportunity recognition.
50 100 Source: Padrón municipal (INE: National Statistics Institute) BORN ENTREPRENEURS? 77 per cent). 67 per cent). In addition, the presence of foreign workers in the domestic servant regime, already high in 1999 (30 per cent), reached 61 per cent of the total people registered as domestic servants in Spain by 2005. The BORN ENTREPRENEURS? 32 Graph 5 Foreign population registered with the Social Security department (1999-2005) General regimen Self-employed regimen All foreign workers 9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 agricultural and sea workers regimes also experienced substantial increases for the period.