By Federico Garza Carvajal
As Spain consolidated its Empire within the 16th and 17th centuries, discourses in regards to the excellent Spanish guy or "Vir" went hand-in-hand with discourses approximately one other form of guy, person who engaged within the "abominable crime and sin opposed to nature"--sodomy. In either Spain and Mexico, sodomy got here to rank moment in basic terms to heresy as a reason for prosecution, and 1000s of sodomites have been tortured, garroted, or burned alive for violating Spanish beliefs of manliness. but in truth, as Federico Garza Carvajal argues during this groundbreaking publication, the prosecution of sodomites had little to do with problems with gender and was once even more a concomitant of empire construction and the necessity to justify political and monetary domination of topic peoples.Drawing on formerly unpublished files of a few 300 sodomy trials carried out in Spain and Mexico among 1561 and 1699, Garza Carvajal examines the sodomy discourses that emerged in Andalucía, seat of Spain's colonial gear, and within the viceroyalty of recent Spain (Mexico), its first and biggest American colony. From those discourses, he convincingly demonstrates that the idea that of sodomy (more than the particular perform) was once an important to the Iberian colonizing application. simply because sodomy hostile the correct of "Vir" and the Spanish nationhood with which it used to be in detail linked, the prosecution of sodomy justified Spain's domination of foreigners (many of whom have been represented as sodomites) within the peninsula and of "Indios" in Mexico, a wholly topic humans depicted as effeminate and liable to sodomitical acts, cannibalism, and inebriation.
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Additional info for Butterflies Will Burn: Prosecuting Sodomites in Early Modern Spain and Mexico
I have concentrated my research, in part, on the discourses evident in some three hundred cases prosecuted by the secular criminal High Courts in Seville, Cádiz, Granada, and Mexico City between 1561 and 1699 as well as those prosecuted by the Audiencia de la Casa de la Contratación (House of Trade Tribunal) located in Andalusia. Almost all of the sodomy cases prosecuted by the House of Trade Tribunal initially occurred on board ships to or from the Indies or in the harbors that functioned as ports of call.
50 Perhaps this was the case. However, shouldn’t one instead ask how, if at all, did sodomies in southern Europe differ from their counterparts in the north? And what, if anything, accounts for the similarities or differences? To do so is to avoid the conﬂation of European cultures at any historical juncture and to reject the notion of a privileged narrative of sexuality emanating from any one culture. If, as Bhabha has suggested, one should not advocate a privileged narrative of the nation, then, by extension, one should debunk a privileged narration of homosexuality.
A more detailed account of their epistemological Vir and its relationship to sodomy is further elaborated in Chapter 2. Here, I wish brieﬂy to emphasize that los moralistas unveiled their discursive fantasies of the new Spanish Man, a concept riddled with sexist, religiously intolerant, and xenophobic visions of power in an effort to buttress Spain’s imperial politics aimed to defeat the likes of Moors, Jews, sodomites, and Indios. 5 When I speak of Man in early modern Spain–New Spain, I refer to what theologians of the Thomistic Scholastic termed as Vir.