By Andreas Hoppe
Scientific disciplines have their very own view on catastrophes. the following, average scientists, engineers, physicians in addition to historians and social scientists outline and speak about geo-hazards and linked technical failures, traditional failures as a company case, medication and its catastrophes. After conflict features of the Shoah are defined with Gershom Sholem´s notion of Jewish Totality, and the location of Displaced folks in Germany in addition to the Nakba for Palestinians with regards to the happiness of Jews celebrating their new country of Israel. The publication additionally reminds of Hamburg’s Flood catastrophe in 1962, the nice East Japan Earthquake in 2011 and different old catastrophes in Japan, the Lisbon earthquake in 1755 and the Age of Enlightenment, and the eruption of the Tambora in 1815 via the “year with out summer”.
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Extra info for Catastrophes: Views from Natural and Human Sciences
Since it is impossible to prepare a perfect disaster prevention plan, unique wisdom has emerged in order to keep damage to a minimum. The following are some examples of old wisdom for disaster reduction in buildings and from floods. First of all, in the case of a building, Saiin-Garan (Western Precinct) of Horyu-ji Temple (a World Heritage Site; now in the city of Ikaruga in Nara Prefecture) is considered as the oldest wooden construction existing in the world and it is estimated that it was made in 607.
When approx. 50 min had passed since the earthquake, a tsunami that had run-on from the Shin-Kitakami-gawa River hit children and faculty members just starting to seek refuge outdoors. 4). 2 Accident at a Nuclear Reactor as a Secondary Disaster (Takada 2011; Fuchigami et al. 7). 2 (The Japan Atomic Power Company). Each reactor was shut down automatically at each Nuclear Power Station. 1 NPS Okuma Tomioka Kawauchi 0 10 20km Naraha Fig. 5 Evacuation areas in the district of Fukushima after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
Though many typhoons inflicted serious damage to Japan as mentioned above, the damage has lessened and the number of deaths or missing persons has not exceeded 100 after the second Muroto typhoon. The reason for the reduction is mainly due to the implementation of disaster prevention measures, which have been revised and strengthened repeatedly. These measures include efforts such as the maintenance of breakwaters, maintenance of concrete films against cliff failures or boulder flows, etc. Furthermore, the precision of weather forecasting that is necessary for disaster prevention has markedly improved through the use of weather radars or satellite images.