By Boris Popivanov, Andreas Umland
"Is Bulgaria's Left heading in the direction of decomposition or to a brand new identification? Popivanov deals a superb analytical answer."?Georgi Karasimeonov, Professor of Political technological know-how at Sofia college
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Extra resources for Changing Images of the Left in Bulgaria: The Challenge of Post-Communism in the Early 21st Century
According to the author, in the Bulgarian case, we have a peculiar combination of historical and contemporary factors contributing to the presence and achievements of the party. He argues that of special significance among the historical factors is the long tradition of an egalitarian peasant political movement in Bulgarian society, while among the current factors he places special significance on the formation of forces directed against globalization and neo-liberal capitalism.  Thus, a paradox seems to arise from the diametrically opposed approaches of comparative political scientists to the Bulgarian post-communist left.
Taking into account the danger of excessive generalization, from the comparative studies one can conclude that the Bulgarian post-communist left: (1) has a serious tradition and draws its legitimacy from a regime that has not been entirely rejected by society; (2) managed to retain its positions after the democratic changes due to the lack of strong traditional alternatives; (3) underwent a very slow transformation away from its initial Marxist-Leninist confines; (4) manifests some quite similar traits to processes in neighbouring Romania.
August saw the election of Poland's first non-communist Prime Minister for the preceding 40 years, Solidarity's candidate Tadeusz Mazowiecki. PZPR's power monopoly was to be terminated in December 1990, when President Jaruzelski was forced to resign, and Solidarity leader Lech Walesa went on to win subsequent presidential elections. There can be no question that the Polish opposition threaded determinedly on its course to power. PZPR made attempts to reform facing growing social hostility and a dramatic outflow of party members.