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Download Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds: The Cyanine Dyes and by Frances M. Hamer PDF

By Frances M. Hamer

Content material:
Chapter I as a rule Introductory (pages 1–31):
Chapter II Methincyanines (pages 32–76):
Chapter III Methincyanines with Substituents at the Chain (pages 77–85):
Chapter IV Symmetrical Trimethincyanines (pages 86–115):
Chapter V Unsymmetrical Trimethincyanines (pages 116–147):
Chapter VI Trimethincyanines with Substituents at the Chain (pages 148–199):
Chapter VII Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Pentamethincyanines, together with people with Substituents at the Chain (pages 200–243):
Chapter VIII Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Heptamethincyanines, together with people with Substituents at the Chain; Polymethincyanines (pages 244–269):
Chapter IX Cyanines within which the Odd?Numbered Carbon Chain, Which hyperlinks the Nuclei, or a part of it, is Cyclic (pages 270–291):
Chapter X diversifications within the Nuclei Which input into Cyanine Molecules (pages 292–350):
Chapter XI Bases, together with a few With Substituents at the Chain, of Which Cyanines are the Quaternary Salts (pages 351–374):
Chapter XII Azacyanines, together with Dyes Substituted at the Chain, and Bases of Which the Quaternary Salts are Azacyanines (pages 375–397):
Chapter XIII convinced periods of Dyes concerning Cyanines (pages 398–510):
Chapter XIV Merocyanines (pages 511–611):
Chapter XV Trinuclear and Polynuclear Cyanines (pages 612–684):
Chapter XVI the connection among color and structure within the Cyanine sequence (pages 685–705):
Chapter XVII Photographic Sensitisation and a few different houses and makes use of of Cyanine Dyes (pages 706–741):

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Extra info for Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds: The Cyanine Dyes and Related Compounds, Volume 18

Example text

Pinacyanol bromide was oxidised by heating with dilute nitric acid and from the reaction mixture quinaldinic acid ethonitrate, XXXI, was isolated in about 90% yield. Since it was so smoothly formed, this indicated the presence in pinacyanol of the Chapter I 14 group XXXII. Oxidation of pinacyanol acetate with alkaline permanganate in aqueous acetone at 0" gave a 79% yield of I-ethyl-2quinolone, which proved that the second quinoline nucleus is present in the form XXXIII. It was suggested that the first condensation of quinaldine ethiodide and formaldehyde gives XXXIV, which first EtX (XXXII) Et (XXXIII) EtX EtX (XXXIV) loses hydrogen iodide, and then loses two hydrogen atoms from the chain.

It was considered that the formulae for the indole dyes, XVI and XVII, were so like those for cyanine, V, and isocyanine, VI, that there should be a greater similarity in properties than in fact exists. For, whereas, the indole dyes were unaffected by strong acids or 10 Chapter I by nitrous acid, the cyanines were discoloured by acid and with nitrous acid gave, momentarily, yellowish solids, which were regarded as nitrosoamines. ** It is ironical that just as other chemists= were supporting the earlier formulae (their paper was sent to the Berich on April 20th, 1912), their proposer was abandoning themm (in the J .

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