Download Designing With Operational Amplifiers: Applications by Jerald G. Graeme PDF

By Jerald G. Graeme

This easy-to-use publication should be a pragmatic reference for circuit designers and clients of operational amplifiers in lots of diversified engineering and medical fields.

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The fourth color is silver. This band gives the tolerance of the resistor. The tolerance shows how close the actual value of the resistor should be to the color-code value. Tolerance is a percentage of the actual value. In this example, silver shows a tolerance of ±10%. This means that the resistor should be within 10% of 300,000 Ω in either direction. 10 = 30,000 and 300,000 + 30,000 = 330,000). The fifth color is brown, which shows the percentage of failure per 1000 h of use. The color brown shows a failure rate of 1% per 1000 h of resistor use.

0005 A = 500 μA. When changing a basic electrical unit to a unit with a prefix, move the decimal point of the unit to the right by the same number of places in the fractional prefix. 8 V is moved three places to the right (8>0> 0)> since the prefix milli has three decimal places. 8 V equals 800 mV. A similar method is used for converting any electrical unit to a unit with a smaller prefix. When a unit with a prefix is converted back to a basic unit, the prefix must be multiplied by the fractional value of the prefix.

4. The voltage drop across a resistor in a series circuit is directly proportional to the size of the resistor. 5. If the circuit is broken at any point, no current will flow. Examples of Series Circuits There is only one path for current flow in a series circuit. The same current flows through each part of the circuit. To find the current through a series circuit, only one value must be found. Kirchhoff’s current law states that the sum of the voltage drops across the parts of a series circuit is equal to the applied voltage.

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