Human Geography

Download Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and by Richard Frucht PDF

By Richard Frucht

A modern research of the folks, cultures, and society in the areas that make up jap Europe.

• Discusses the geography, heritage, political improvement, and financial system of countries comparable to Poland, Lithuania, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Albania, and lots of others

• comprises ancient profiles of important humans corresponding to Konstantin Päts and Lydia Koidula, cultural occasions comparable to the tune competition, and key occasions akin to the sinking of the ferry Estonia

• provides maps of the whole zone and every of the sixteen international locations, together with Latvia, Slovenia, Bulgaria, and Greece

• comprises discussions of japanese eu languages

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Additional resources for Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture

Example text

DECLINE AND PARTITION IN THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES After the wars of the mid-seventeenth century, the Commonwealth was exhausted. Its population had fallen from 10 million in 1648 to 6 million in 1668. Its economy and towns were in ruin. People did not migrate to the Commonwealth any longer. Groups such as the Jews and several non-Catholic denominations in fact began to leave. The Commonwealth became a confederation of territories controlled by the magnates. In the xenophobic atmosphere dominating the Commonwealth, the nobility did not want to have another foreigner on the throne, and they elected Micha√ Korybut Wi]niowiecki in 1669.

After several years of wars in which Muscovy defended itself and its new dynasty, the Romanovs, it signed a truce with the Commonwealth, which was now involved in wars against Sweden. The new king wanted to recover the crown of Sweden as well as reclaim the throne of Muscovy, and fought with both of them with varying degrees of success. His favorite project, however, was a great war with the Turks and the recovery of Southeastern Europe. These rebellious and warrior-like free settlers established a form of self-government on the depopulated steppe between Muscovy, the Commonwealth, and the Turkish possessions north of the Black Sea.

Noblemen established a provincial Council of Landlords, transformed later into dietines (sejmiki), to decide about local matters. Beginning in the early fifteenth century, King’s Councils met to consult representatives of the dietines. In 1463 a two-chamber parliament was formed, composed of the Senate (upper chamber) and the Sejm (lower chamber), whose deputies represented the dietines. This law, stipulating that the king had no right to legislate without the approval of the Sejm and the Senate, formally recognized the existence of the two-chamber parliament.

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