By Maarten Kappelle
This accomplished synthesis systematically covers the whole variety of normal and controlled oak forests within the highlands of tropical the United States. initially, those forests have been broadly disbursed, yet mostly via human effect huge elements have disappeared and the rest patches are less than expanding danger. For the 1st time, points as various because the paleo-ecology, biogeography, stand constitution and composition, biodiversity, inhabitants dynamics, environment dynamics, fragmentation and restoration, conservation and sustainable use of Neotropical montane oak forests are taken care of in a coherent demeanour. supplying a radical figuring out of ecological styles and procedures that make certain the constitution and functioning of those marvelous forests, this quantity can function a legitimate foundation for sustainable wooded area administration and biodiversity conservation normally.
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Extra info for Ecology and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Oak Forests (Ecological Studies, 185)
For Central America and northern South America, a Younger Dryas cooling event has been suggested for Guatemala (Leyden 1995), Costa Rica (Islebe et al. 1995), Colombia (van Geel and van der Hammen 1973; van der Hammen 1978; Kuhry et al. 1993; Hooghiemstra and van der Hammen 1995), Ecuador (Clapperton et al. 1997), and Peru (Thompson et al. 1995). , dates that delimit events by an upper and lower age boundary) is a problem in many paleorecords (Heine 1993; Van’t Veer et al. 2000). In this chapter, we present data from the La Chonta bog area, located in the Cordillera de Talamanca.
In Costa Rica, Céspedes (1991) observed during a year of observation a strong periodicity in leaf flushing, leaf fall, flowering and fruiting in Quercus seemannii at 1,700 m altitude. C. Nixon pronounced during the dry season (February–April). Flowering and fruiting also occurred during the dry season (October–May), reaching a maximum in March, whereas shoot growth was more important during the wet season (May–October). ). However, some widespread lowland species, such as Q. , near Jalapa in Veracruz).
Thus, again following Burger (1975, 1977), it is best to recognize Q. rapurahuensis as distinct from Q. benthamii. In northern Central America, from Oaxaca and Chiapas south to El Salvador, a common element of the montane oak forest is the red oak Quercus acatenangensis. Although superficially resembling some phases of Q. seemannii, with long entire glossy leaves, Q. acatenangensis belongs to a different complex of species that have biennial fruit maturation, unlike the annual fruit maturation found in all of the species from Costa Rica and Panama, including Q.