By Andrew Nikiforuk
Starting within the past due Eighties, a chain of unbelievable bark beetle outbreaks unsettled iconic forests and groups throughout western North the US. An insect the dimensions of a rice kernel finally killed greater than 30 billion pine and spruce timber from Alaska to New Mexico. usually showing in lots greater than colleges of killer whales, the beetles engineered one of many world's maximum woodland die-offs because the deforestation of Europe through peasants among the 11th and 13th centuries.
The beetle didn't act on my own. erroneous technology, out-of-control logging, undesirable public coverage, and 100 years of fireside suppression created a risky geography that published the world's oldest wooded area supervisor from all common constraints. Like such a lot human empires, the beetles exploded wildly after which crashed, leaving of their wake grieving landowners, humbled scientists, hungry animals, and changed watersheds. even if weather swap caused this complicated occasion, human vanity usually set the desk. With little caution, an historic insect pointedly uncovered the frailty of probably solid artifical landscapes. And regardless of the billions of public cash spent on keep watch over efforts, the beetles burn away like a hearth that can't be positioned out.
Drawing on first-hand debts from entomologists, botanists, foresters, and rural citizens, award-winning journalist Andrew Nikiforuk investigates this unheard of beetle plague, its startling implications, and the teachings it holds.
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Extra resources for Empire of the Beetle
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, pp 235–256 Lieth H, Al-Masoon AA (1993) Towards the rational use of high salinity tolerant plant. Kluwer, Netherlands, pp 12–127 Makeschin F, Fischer R, Zhong Z (2002) Bodenchememische Eigenschaften saliner Koestenstandorten der Provinz Zhejiang (China). In: Makeschin F (ed) Mitteilgn Dtsch. Bodenkundl. Gesellsch/Springer, Berlin, pp 68–74 Qureshi RH, Barrett-Lennard EG (1998) Saline agriculture for irrigated land in Pakistan: a hand book.
28 4 Causes and Countermeasures of Urban Salinization Fig. 2 Trees planted in Yantai, Shandong (Photograph taken by Xu Jingwei) Hence, improved irrigation and drainage systems are required to control the rise of the water table and environmental salt accumulation. For example, land-water could be irrigated with saltwater and freshwater alternately, surface mulch could be used, or surface soils could be furrowed after rain. Crops and grasses possess different tolerance levels for salt in different water and salt environments.
It should be noted that the degree to which sodicity affects any given soil is influenced by factors such as soil mineralogy, pH, texture, and organic content. Within the framework of salt-affected soil improvement, particular attention is paid to the salinity tolerance of crop plants according to the specific stage of improvement (Zhang 2003). , Lycium chinense, and Amorpha fruticosa, are planted. In the later stages, when soils become more fertile and have lower salt content, it is possible to grow crops more sensitive to salinity, such as rice, soybean, and corn (Crouch and Honeyman 1986; Song 2001).