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Download Epidemiological Studies: A Practical Guide, 2nd edition by Alan J. Silman, Gary J. Macfarlane PDF

By Alan J. Silman, Gary J. Macfarlane

Following on within the footsteps of its acclaimed and renowned predecessor, this new version builds at the winning beneficial properties that engaged readers of the 1st variation: it explains the rules and perform of epidemiology and serves as a instruction manual if you desire to do epidemiology; it makes use of appropriate routines and examples, taken from actual lifestyles, to demonstrate find out how to organize a learn; it goals to assist produce legitimate effects that may fulfill supply our bodies, moral committees, and magazine editors; finally it bridges the space among concept and perform. This variation contains various advancements and several other new chapters in an effort to additional increase its allure.

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Example text

Ix). ix A university research department carried out a case-control study of stomach cancer, examining the hypothesis that frequent fruit and vegetable consumption was protective for the occurrence of disease. Cases were subjects recently diagnosed with stomach cancer and controls were free of the disease and had the same distribution of ages, gender and area of residence as the cases. All subjects were asked about their fruit and vegetable consumption during the past year, and the analysis of results showed the surprising result that individuals with stomach cancer had consumed almost double the amount of fruit and vegetables as the controls.

Yes/no), whereas in practice the questions of interest relate to the size of the risk with increasing exposure. 2. Most exposure variables in practice are not easily dichotomised and indeed adopting a ϩ/Ϫ split does not permit analysis of the crucial ‘dose–response’ effect. Some exposure variables are, by their nature, ranked or ordinal, such as activity level of occupation in the table. In that instance, it would be of interest to compare the risk of disease in each of the three active groups separately from the sedentary group.

48 Which measure of association? iii Amongst 200 patients with acute appendicitis, 40 had a recent history of urinary tract infection (UTI). 25. 11. 25 indicates that the odds of those with appendicitis of having a recent UTI was more than twice those without appendicitis. In many circumstances the odds ratio will be a good approximation to the relative risk. 3 Attributable risks An alternative approach to assessing the risk from an exposure may be derived from the difference between the risk in an exposed population and that in an unexposed population.

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