By John L. Woodward
This CCPS suggestion booklet exhibits designers and operators of chemical amenities the right way to realistically estimate the flammable mass in a cloud of by chance published fabric that's in a position to igniting. It offers details on event with flammable vapor clouds, uncomplicated recommendations of fires and explosions, and an outline of comparable machine programs.Content:
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–4):
Chapter 2 evaluation (pages 5–9):
Chapter three stories with Flammable Vapor Clouds (pages 11–29):
Chapter four easy Concepts—Fluid circulate, Fires, and Explosions (pages 31–130):
Chapter five decision of Flammable Mass (pages 131–167):
Chapter 6 evaluate of comparable desktop courses (pages 169–181):
Chapter 7 labored Examples (pages 183–203):
Chapter eight innovations for destiny paintings (pages 205–207):
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Extra info for Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud: A CCPS Concept Book
85. , 1980). 1 are unconfirmed by other researchers. 1 proposes that higher values of CDapply only with jagged petals pointing outward. The important variables to know are PO, CD, and A . Subcooled liquid blowdown solutions are given for various tank geometries by Sommerfield (1990). 828 "Theoretically justified and observed value for nozzle or orifice. UPJI = Uniform petals jagged in UPJO = Uniform petals jagged out RPJI = Random petals jagged in Source: Dodge et al. (1980). 34 4. BASIC CONCEPTS-FLUID FLOW, FIRES, AND EXPLOSIONS Example 1.
Some steps can be done without a computer program or to verify a computer program. For these steps, equations are listed without derivation but with example calculations. Other steps are impractical without a computer program. This book provides our best guidance based on knowledge to date, and acknowledges what is not yet well known. An objective is to concisely lay out methods to calculate the characteristics of a flammable vapor cloud needed as inputs to fire and explosion models. These inc1u de Discharge rate and phase mass fractions Dispersion and turbulence Flammability properties Ignition probability Degree of congestion and confinement Mass fraction of flammable cloud affected by congested/confined portions of the plant.
The user may want to select among the wide-ranging menu of background topics covered in Chapter 4. Chapter 4 provides usable methods to calculate discharge rates, aerosol drop size, rainout, and reevaporation to generate the source rate for a vapor cloud. It also reviews the principle factors affecting dispersion and ignition of the cloud. This discussion includes how turbulence affects ignition probability and flame acceleration. To put the calculation of flammable mass in context, this chapter reviews concepts of flammability and explosions treated in depth elsewhere: flammability limits, ignition energy, autoignition temperature, flash point, flame speed.