Human Geography

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By John Burton-Page

The British student John Burton-Page contributed various formative articles on Indian Islamic structure for the Encyclopaedia of Islam over a interval of 25 years. Assembled right here for the 1st time, those provide an insightful evaluation of the topic, starting from the earliest mosques and tombs erected through the Delhi sultans within the thirteenth, 14th and fifteenth centuries, to the good monuments of the Mughal emperors relationship from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The articles conceal the critical varieties of Indian Islamic structure -- mosques, tombs, minarets, forts, gateways and water buildings -- in addition to an important websites and their monuments. Unsurpassed for his or her compression of data, those succinct articles function the very best creation to the topic, indispensible for either scholars and visitors. The articles are supplemented via a portfolio of images specifically chosen for the quantity, in addition to a word list and recent bibliography.

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Additional resources for Indian Islamic Architecture: Forms and Typologies, Sites and Monuments (Handbook of Oriental Studies Handbuch Der Orientalistik. Section 2 India)

Sample text

The tomb of his successor IslÊm ShÊh also stands within a lake, but smaller; the better preservation of its causeway shows this to have been constructed on a cantilever principle, each pier with projecting balconies and carrying a chhatrÒ. In Narnaul ShÏr ShÊh built the tomb of his grandfather IbrÊhÒm KhÊn, a square building not unlike the square LÔdÒ tombs, but Ànished in better stone and with a shallower dome. After ShÏr ShÊh’s accession in 947/1540 he started building at Delhi, fortifying Àrst the PurÊnÊ Qil{a and adding an exquisite mosque, with the corner turrets already noticed in the Moth kÒ Masjid and the JamÊlÒ mosque, and with a reÀned form of the recessed arch: a lower arch set back from a taller one.

Ornament is generally reduced to a minimum, and where it exists it is more usually of moulded plaster than of carved stone. The sombre and ascetic effect of this architecture produced under conditions of Ànancial stringency is in marked contrast to the exuberance of plastic ornament of the preceding regimes, and was certainly foreign to the instincts of the traditional Indian craftsman. But aspects of the Hindu tradition are certainly found in buildings of this phase, exempliÀed in the use of beam-and-bracket construction for many of the openings—a main doorway tends to show a large arched opening in which a smaller opening of lintel-and-bracket construction is recessed; but this device is met with earlier in GhiyÊth al-DÒn Tughluq’s tomb—and in the use of sloping eaves (chhajjÊ) supported on corbels, which now appears for the 8 introduction Àrst time.

At the {AlÊxÒ DarwÊza, but not in the other examples of KhaljÒ work, the entire surfaces are so treated, and in addition show the use of white marble bandeaux of inscriptions, pilasters and architraves. Works of similar style exist at Delhi (the so-called JamÊ{at KhÊna mosque at the shrine of NiØÊm alDÒn AuliyÊx) and Bayana; but other buildings of the KhaljÒ period are found as far aÀeld as Jalor in Rajasthan, at Bharoch, Cambay, Patan and Siddhpur in Gujarat, at Bhilsa in Malwa, in Daulatabad in the northern Deccan, and elsewhere, many of these incorporating much pillaged temple material but showing also many of the characteristics mentioned above, and most signiÀcant in pointing out the expansion of this early Sultanate style.

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