By Shashi Menon
This on-the-job source is choked with the entire formulation, calculations, and useful tips essential to easily circulate gasoline or drinks via pipes, check the feasibility of enhancing latest pipeline functionality, or layout new structures. Contents: Water structures Piping * fireplace safety Piping platforms * Steam structures Piping * construction providers Piping * Oil structures Piping * gasoline platforms Piping * technique structures Piping * Cryogenic platforms Piping * Refrigeration structures Piping * harmful Piping platforms * Slurry and Sludge platforms Piping * Wastewater and Stormwater Piping * Plumbing and Piping platforms * Ash dealing with Piping platforms * Compressed Air Piping structures * Compressed Gases and Vacuum Piping structures * gasoline fuel Distribution Piping platforms
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This on-the-job source is full of all of the formulation, calculations, and useful counsel essential to easily stream fuel or beverages via pipes, investigate the feasibility of bettering present pipeline functionality, or layout new structures. Contents: Water platforms Piping * hearth safeguard Piping platforms * Steam structures Piping * development prone Piping * Oil structures Piping * fuel platforms Piping * technique platforms Piping * Cryogenic platforms Piping * Refrigeration structures Piping * harmful Piping platforms * Slurry and Sludge structures Piping * Wastewater and Stormwater Piping * Plumbing and Piping platforms * Ash dealing with Piping structures * Compressed Air Piping platforms * Compressed Gases and Vacuum Piping structures * gasoline fuel Distribution Piping platforms
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Extra info for Piping Calculations Manual
Of pipe of constant diameter equal to the base diameter selected. The pressure drop can now be calculated for this single-diameter pipeline. 5. Consider three sections of pipe joined together in series. Using subscripts 1, 2, and 3 and denoting the pipe length as L, inside diameter as D, ﬂow rate as Q, and velocity as V, we can calculate the equivalent length of each pipe section in terms of a base diameter. This base diameter will be selected as the diameter of the ﬁrst pipe section D1 . Since equivalent length is based on the same pressure drop in the equivalent pipe as the original pipe diameter, we will calculate the equivalent length of section 2 by ﬁnding that length of diameter D1 that will match the pressure drop in a length L2 of pipe diameter D2 .
31) = 558 ft rounded off to the nearest foot The line connecting the points C and D represents the variation of the total head in the pipeline and is termed the hydraulic gradient. At any intermediate point such as E along the pipeline the pipeline pressure will be the difference between the total head represented by point F on the hydraulic gradient and the actual elevation of the pipeline at E. 31 It can be seen that the hydraulic gradient clears all peaks along the pipeline. 31 Since a negative pressure is not acceptable, the total pressure at the beginning of the pipeline will have to be higher by the preceding amount.
For sudden contraction or reduction in pipe size as shown in Fig. 42) where the coefﬁcient Cc depends on the ratio of the two pipe crosssectional areas A1 and A2 as shown in Fig. 4. Gradual enlargement and reduction of pipe size, as shown in Fig. 5, cause less head loss than sudden enlargement and sudden reduction. 5 Gradual pipe enlargement and reduction. 6 Gradual pipe expansion head loss coefﬁcient. where Cc depends on the diameter ratio D2 /D1 and the cone angle β in the gradual expansion. A graph showing the variation of Cc with β and the diameter ratio is shown in Fig.