By Hadziioannou G., Hutten P.F
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The reactivity to calcium increases with decreasing DE. LM pectins are often used to produce low-sugar jams. They are also often used in milk products where they utilize the calcium present to enhance viscosity and stabilize emulsions [124,125]. If HM pectins are reacted with ammonia, normally in an aqueous alcohol slurry at ambient temperature, a LM amidated pectin can be produced. Amidated pectin requires less calcium to gel than conventional LM pectins. Pectin is present in nearly all terrestrial plants but is most abundant in vegetables and fruits.
P. (2011) Food protein functionality: a comprehensive approach. , 25 (8), 1853–1864. , and Kumacheva, E. (2010) Small, stable, and monodispersed bubbles encapsulated with biopolymers. Macromol. , 31, 222–227. G. J. (2010) Functional biopolymer particles: design, fabrication, and applications. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. , 9 (4), 374–397. Schatz, C. and Lecommandoux, S. (2010) Polysaccharide-containing block copolymers: synthesis, properties and applications of an emerging family of glycoconjugates. Macromol.
The remaining suspension is then dialyzed against distilled water to remove any free acid molecules from the dispersion. Additional steps such as ﬁltration, differential centrifugation, and ultracentrifugation can also be used [88,89]. Generally, the longer the hydrolysis, the shorter the nanowhiskers and the narrower the size polydispersity . The type of acid used will impart different properties to the whiskers. The two most commonly used acids are sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. Phosphoric acid  and hydrobromic acid have also been used.