By William A. Tiller
This booklet is a crucial spouse quantity to The technology of Crystallization: Microscopic Interfacial Phenomena. It bargains particularly with convection, warmth delivery, and solute delivery and describes either regular country and brief solute distributions in bulk crystals, small crystallites of varied shapes, and skinny motion pictures. Integrating those elements, it treats interface instability for interfaces of other form plus the dominant morphological features present in crystals in the course of both unmarried part or polyphase crystallization. The recommendations are prolonged to embody organic crystallization and the connecting hyperlinks among the morphological positive aspects of polymer crystallization and straightforward natural molecule crystallization. furthermore, the new release of actual and chemical defects is taken care of for either bulk crystals and skinny movies to teach either the origins of those faults and a few tactics for removing them. quite a few mathematical examples are applied to assist the reader achieve a quantitative knowing of this subject.
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Extra resources for The Science of Crystallization: Macroscopic Phenomena and Defect Generation
For this, the equations for flow must be expressed in dimensionless form so that all dimensional variables that appear in the hydrodynamic equations must be expressed in terms of factors characteristic of these variables. Defining £ as our characteristic dimension (size of crystal around which flow occurs or tube in which flow occurs) and /Too as our characteristic velocity (far-field stream velocity, for example), all linear dimensions and velocities take the form Zi = Zi/£ and Ui = Ui/Uoc, respectively.
Eq. 11a) is inaccurate in a second and perhaps even more important way for real systems where an interface field is present in either the crystal, the nutrient phase or both. For those cases where the effective thickness of the interface field, AZj (where j = S or L), is much less then 8c, Eq. 116) ki + (l-ki)exp(-V6c/D) wherefc$,which is generally a function of crystal orientation, is defined as the ratio of the concentration in the crystal a distance AZs from the interface to the concentration in the liquid phase a distance AZL from the interface (see Fig.
Solute concentration profiles in the solid, Cg, and liquid, C/,, for a static interface which exhibits all four possible types of distributed binding potentials. transition of ki to unity occurs when V>V* because ki —> 1 and the solute becomes trapped. When one applies these considerations to film formation, interface fields exist both normal to the ledges in the plane of the adlayer and normal to the bulk film/adlayer interface. This is one of the reasons why it is so difficult to dope crystals during film growth.